Mortars for Conservation of Late 19th and Early 20th Century Buildings-Combination of Natural Cements with Air Lime


With the availability of commercial Natural cements (NC) for the conservation purposes raises a fundamental question about the compatibility between historic and repair mortars. The properties of Natural cements are dependent on the geological location of the raw material extraction and also on the production parameters, both having an impact on the final properties of the mortars produced from each distinct. Therefore, the significance of preservation of 19th and 20th century heritage and selection of the proper binder compatible with the original materials necessitate the study of existing NCs, that nowadays are produced by several manufacturers. This work provides a complex study of the mortars prepared from three NCs available in the market: Groupe Prompt Vicat, France (NCPV); Cemento Collet Marfil (NCM) and Cemento Natural Tigre (NCT), both from Spain. Various mortar sets based on individual NC containing different binder/aggregate ratios and air lime additions were analyzed after 28, 60, and 90 days of curing with the focus on their mineralogical composition (XRD), morphology (SEM), mechanical (flexural and compressive strength), and physical properties such as water absorption by capillarity, water vapor permeability, and water vapor diffusion resistance. Mortars prepared from NCPV, NCM, and NCT show distinct physical-mechanical properties with varying binder/aggregate ratio and air lime addition. This study shows that the NC variability should be taken into consideration when selecting materials for the conservation and rehabilitation of historic renders and plasters. Based on the comparison with original NC mortars, several NC mortars developed in this study show adequate properties for conservation of the buildings from late 19th and early 20th century in terms of compressive strength (>12 MPa), water absorption by capillarity (<20 kg center dot m(-2)center dot h(-0.5)), water vapor permeability (<4 x 10(-10) kg center dot s(-1)center dot m(-1)center dot Pa-1), and water vapor diffusion resistance (<28) values.



subject category

Chemistry; Materials Science; Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering; Physics


Andrejkovicova, S; Maljaee, H; Rocha, D; Rocha, F; Soares, MR; Velosa, A

our authors



This research was funded by Geobiotec, grant number (UID/GEO/04035/2019; UIDB/04035/2020).

Share this project:

Related Publications

We use cookies for marketing activities and to offer you a better experience. By clicking “Accept Cookies” you agree with our cookie policy. Read about how we use cookies by clicking "Privacy and Cookie Policy".