Antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-adhesion activities of Piperbetle leaf extract against Avian pathogenic Escherichiacoli


Piperbetle leaves have traditionally been used to treat many diseases, including bacterial infections. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-adhesion activities of P.betle extract against avian pathogenic Escherichiacoli (APEC). The ethanol extract of P.betle leaves demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of APEC with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL as compared with 1% DMSO, a negative control. Disruption and breakdown of the bacterial cells were detected when the cells were challenged with the extract at 2 x MIC. Bacterial cells treated with the extract demonstrated longer cells without a septum, compared to the control. The extract at 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 x MIC significantly inhibited the formation of the bacterial biofilm of all the tested isolates except the isolate CH10 (P < 0.05) without inhibiting growth. At 1/2 x MIC, 55% of the biofilm inhibition was detected in APEC CH09, a strong biofilm producer. At 32 x MIC, 88% of the inhibition of viable cells embedded in the mature biofilm was detected in APEC CH09. Reduction in the bacterial adhesion to surfaces was shown when APEC were treated with sub-MICs of the extract as observed by SEM. Hydroxychavicol was found to be the major compound presented in the leaf extract as detected by GC-MS analysis. The information suggested potential medicinal benefits of P.betle extract to inhibit the growth, biofilm, and adhesion of avian pathogenic E.coli.



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Kulnanan, P; Chuprom, J; Thomrongsuwannakij, T; Romyasamit, C; Sangkanu, S; Manin, N; Nissapatorn, V; Pereira, MD; Wilairatana, P; Kitpipit, W; Mitsuwan, W

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This work was funded by Research Institute for Health Sciences, Walailak University (Grant number; WU-IRG-64-023). We would like to thank Research Center of Excellence in Innovation of Essential Oil and One Health Research Center, Walailak University, Thailand. Finally, we would like to thank the Project CICECO-FCT, UIDB/50011/2020 and UIDP/50011/2020.

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