New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations
authors Raupp-Pereira, F; Ball, RJ; Rocha, J; Labrincha, JA; Allen, GC
nationality International
journal CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH
author keywords industrial wastes; belite and lime-based clinkers; cement properties
keywords FT-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; CERAMIC FORMULATIONS; DICALCIUM SILICATE; PHASE-ANALYSIS; CEMENT; SLUDGE; AL-27; SI-29
abstract This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C(3)A and C3S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
publisher PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
issn 0008-8846
year published 2008
volume 38
issue 4
beginning page 511
ending page 521
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.11.008
web of science category Construction & Building Technology; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
subject category Construction & Building Technology; Materials Science
unique article identifier WOS:000254819600009
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 8.328
5 year journal impact factor 8.515
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 93.157
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