Towards the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer by the pre-treatment of human urine using ionic liquids


Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used clinical biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. Most available techniques for PSA quantification in human fluids require extensive sample processing and expensive immunoassays that are often unavailable in developing countries. The quantification of PSA in serum is the most common practice; however, PSA is also present in human urine, although less used in diagnosis. Herein we demonstrate the use of ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) as effective pre-treatment strategies of human urine, allowing the PSA detection and quantification by more expedite equipment in a non-invasive matrix. If properly designed, IL-based ABS afford the simultaneous extraction and concentration of PSA (at least up to 250-fold) in the IL-rich phase. The best ABS not only allow to concentrate PSA but also other forms of PSA, which can be additionally quantified, paving the way to their use in differential prostate cancer diagnosis.




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Pereira, MM; Calixto, JD; Sousa, ACA; Pereira, BJ; Lima, AS; Coutinho, JAP; Freire, MG

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This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 and UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES. The NMR spectrometers used in this work are part of the National NMR Network (PTNMR) and are partially supported by Infrastructure Project No. 022161 (co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE 2020, POCI and PORL and FCT through PIDDAC).The authors acknowledge the financial support of FEDER through the COMPETE 2020 Programme and National Funds through FCT-Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology-under the NANOBIOSENSE project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028755 and from the European Union Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020, under the TEAMING Grant agreement No 739572-The Discoveries CTR. M. M. Pereira acknowledges the PhD Grant (2740-13-3) and financial support from Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior e Capes. A.C.A. Sousa acknowledges University of Aveiro for funding in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in the numbers 4, 5, and 6 of the article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19.

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