An integrated approach to assess the sublethal effects of colloidal gold nanorods in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis
authors Costa, B; Quintaneiro, C; Daniel-da-Silva, AL; Trindade, T; Soares, AMVM; Lopes, I
nationality International
journal JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
author keywords Amphibians; Nanotoxicity; Feeding; Avoidance behavior; Biomarkers
keywords ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY; INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES; TOXICITY; AVOIDANCE; TESTS; FATE
abstract Gold nanorods (AuNR) have been explored for many applications, including innovative nanomedicines, which also might contribute to its increase in the environment, namely due to inadequate disposable of wastes into aquatic environments. Early-life stages of amphibians are usually aquatic and sensitive to chemical contamination. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the sublethal effects of CTAB functionalized AuNR on Xenopus laevis tadpoles. As such, tadpoles were exposed to serial concentrations of AuNR for 72 h. A reduction in the rate of feeding (EC50 = 4 mu g.L-1), snout to vent growth (EC50 = 5 mu g.L-1) and weight gain (EC50 = 6 mu g.L-1), was observed for AuNR-exposed tadpoles. Also, tadpoles actively avoided concentrations >= 4 mu g.L-1 of AuNR, after 12 h of exposure. At the biochemical level, AuNR caused impairments in antioxidant and nervous system related enzymes. Exposure to CTAB alone caused a high mortality. Results indicated that CTAB functionalized AuNR may induce several sublethal effects that may compromise the organism's fitness. Avoidance behavior (which corresponds to the disappearance of organisms, thus, similar to their death), observed at concentrations matching those inducing sublethal effects, suggest that it should be considered in the risk assessment for amphibians.
publisher ELSEVIER
issn 0304-3894
isbn 1873-3336
year published 2020
volume 400
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123237
web of science category Engineering, Environmental; Environmental Sciences
subject category Engineering; Environmental Sciences & Ecology
unique article identifier WOS:000571472900005
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 9.038
5 year journal impact factor 8.512
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 95.283
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