Synthesis and characterization of scaffolds produced under mild conditions based on oxidized cashew gums and carboxyethyl chitosan


This study describes the development of scaffolds based on carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and different oxidized cashew gums (CGOx) for tissue engineering (TE) applications. After the physico-chemical characterizations of CEC and CGOx (oxidation degree of 20, 35 and 50%), these macromolecules were used for producing the CGOx-CEC hydrogels through a Schiff base reaction, in the absence of any crosslinking agent. The CGOx-CEC scaffolds obtained after a freeze-drying process were characterized for their morphology, mechanical properties, swelling ability, degradation, and porosity. Those revealed to be highly porous (25-65%), and showed a stable swelling behavior, as well as degradation properties in the absence of enzymes. The use of the cashew gum with higher degree of oxidation led to scaffolds with higher crosslinking densities and increased compressive modulus. None of the hydrogels show cytotoxicity during the 14 days of incubation. Considering all the properties mentioned, these scaffolds are excellent candidates for soft tissue regeneration, owing to the use of eco-friendly starting materials and the easy tuning of their properties. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Chemistry, Applied; Polymer Science


Ferreira, CRD; Ramos, ELD; Araujo, LFS; Sousa, LMD; Feitosa, JPA; Cunha, AF; Oliveira, MB; Mano, JF; Maciel, JD

nossos autores


The authors wish to acknowledge the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil), INOMAT/INCT (Brazil), and FUNCAP (Brazil) for financial support in the form of grants and fellowships. This study was financed in part by the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior -Finance Code 001. The authors are grateful to Analytical Center from Federal University of Ceara (UFC) for the SEM analysis and Centro Nordestino de Aplicacao e Uso da Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear (CENAUREMN) for the NMR analysis. This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES. Mariana B. Oliveira acknowledges the individual contract CEECIND/03605/2017.

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