Carbamate Pesticides: Shedding Light on Their Impact on the Male Reproductive System


Carbamates are widely used and known around the world as pesticides in spite of also having medical applications. This class of chemicals is classified as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, blocking acetylcholine hydrolyzation in a reversible manner. Their lack of species selectivity and their reported high toxicity can induce, upon exposure, adverse outcomes in male fertility that may lead to infertility. In addition, they are also considered endocrine-disrupting chemicals and can interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, essential for the normal function of the male reproductive system, thus being able to provoke male reproductive dysfunctions. Although the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, various signaling pathways, such as those mediated by acetylcholine or kisspeptin, are affected by exposure to carbamates, thus compromising steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Over the last decades, several studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have reported a myriad of negative effects of carbamates on the male reproductive system. In this review, an up-to-date overview of the impact of carbamates on the male reproductive system is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of these compounds on acetylcholine regulation and the male endocrine system.




Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Chemistry


Moreira, S; Silva, R; Carrageta, DF; Alves, MG; Seco-Rovira, V; Oliveira, PF; Pereira, MD

nossos autores


This work was supported by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia-FCT to CICECOAveiro Institute of Materials (UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020) and LA/P/0006/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/ME (PIDDAC), LAQV-REQUIMTE (UIDB/50006/2020), UMIB (UIDB/00215/2020, and UIDP/00215/2020), ITR-Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health (LA/P/0064/2020) and the post-graduation students S. Moreira (DFA/BD/6438/2020) and D. F. Carrageta (SFRH/BD/136779/2018). Pedro F. Oliveira is funded by national funds through FCT-Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, I.P., under the Scientific Employment Stimulus-Institutional Call-reference CEECINST/00026/2018, financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES/FSE/UE.

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