Lightweight dense/porous bi-layered ceramic tiles prepared by double pressing


This work reports the production process of bi-layered ceramics tiles, formed from two layers with different densities - dense and porous - and with adjustable thickness. The novel production method comprises a double pressing action, fast and easy to implement industrially, that ensures the development of a perfect interface bonding between layers. The bi-layered ceramic tile is formed by an upper layer with density similar to a conventional porcelain stoneware tile, and a porous bottom layer, which promotes weight reduction of the product maintaining suitable mechanical strength. The introduction of porosity is achieved by means of the incorporation of pore forming agent - polypropylene (PP) - into the ceramic formulation, which undergoes complete and non-harmful thermal decomposition during firing. For comparison, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was also tested as porogen. The rapid and complete combustion of PP is suitable for fast-firing ceramic products, such as porcelain stoneware. In addition, the polymer decomposition does not induce defects in the ceramic pieces, and is environmentally acceptable. The produced tiles are lighter than conventional porcelain stoneware tiles, thus decreasing their transport and distribution costs. Additionally, the thermal attenuation provided by the porous layer could be valuable in innovative applications, such as ventilated facades. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



subject category

Engineering; Materials Science


Novais, RM; Seabra, MP; Labrincha, JA

our authors


The authors acknowledge the financial support from Portuguese Innovation Agency (Adi) through project ThermoCer, to CICECO (Pest C/CTM/LA0011/2013) and RNME-Pole University of Aveiro (FCT Project REDE/1509/RME/2005) for instrument use, scientific and technical assistance. The authors acknowledge CINCA for providing the spray-dried powder. The authors are thankful to Dr. Luis Ferras for the curve fitting and Dr. Robert Pullar for help with the English language.

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