Electromagnetic energy harvesting using magnetic levitation architectures: A review


Motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesters have the ability to provide low-cost and customizable electric powering. They are a well-suited technological solution to autonomously supply a broad range of high-sophisticated devices. This paper presents a detailed review focused on major breakthroughs in the scope of electromagnetic energy harvesting using magnetic levitation architectures. A rigorous analysis of twenty-one design configurations was made to compare their geometric and constructive parameters, optimization methodologies and energy harvesting performances. This review also explores the most relevant models (analytical, semi-analytical, empirical and finite element method) already developed to make intelligible the physical phenomena of their transduction mechanisms. The most relevant approaches to model each physical phenomenon of these transduction mechanisms are highlighted in this paper. Very good agreements were found between experimental and simulation tests with deviations lower than 15%. Moreover, the external motion excitations and electric energy harvesting outputs were also comprehensively compared and critically discussed. Electric power densities up to 8 mW/cm(3) (8 kW/m(3)) have already been achieved; for resistive loads, the maximum voltage and current were 43.4 V and 150 mA, respectively, for volumes up to 235 cm(3). Results highlight the potential of these harvesters to convert mechanical energy into electric energy both for large-scale and small-scale applications. Moreover, this paper proposes future research directions towards efficiency maximization and minimization of energy production costs.



subject category

Energy & Fuels; Engineering


Carneiro, P; dos Santos, MPS; Rodrigues, A; Ferreira, JAF; Simoes, JAO; Marques, AT; Kholkin, AL

our authors


This work was funded by Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (grant references SFRH/BPD/117475/2016 and BI/UI66/8372/2018, project reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-031132). It was also support by the Centre for Mechanical Technology & Automation (UID/EMS/00481/2019-FCT and CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-022083). This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO Aveiro Institute of Materials, FCT Ref. UID/CTM/50011/2019, financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES. The project POCI-01-0247-FEDER-007678 SGH Smart Green Homes is acknowledged. The research was also supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of the Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST MISiS (No. K2-2019-015).

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