Understanding the Formation of Deep Eutectic Solvents: Betaine as a Universal Hydrogen Bond Acceptor


The mechanism of formation of betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DES) is presented for the first time. Due to its polarity unbalance, it was found that betaine displays strong negative deviations from ideality when mixed with a variety of different organic substances. These results pave the way for a comprehensive design of novel deep eutectic solvents. A connection to biologically relevant systems was made using betaine (osmolyte) and urea (protein denaturant), showing that these two compounds formed a DES, the molecular interactions of which were greatly enhanced in the presence of water.



subject category

Chemistry; Science & Technology - Other Topics


Abranches, DO; Silva, LP; Martins, MAR; Pinho, SP; Coutinho, JAP

our authors


This work was developed within the scope of the projects CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES, and CIMO-Mountain Research Center, UIDB/00690/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement.

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