A New Added-Value Application for Steel Wire Drawing Mill Scale Waste in Stoneware Ceramic Products


Mill scale (MS) is a iron-rich waste generated in the wire drawing process with high iron content and is still mainly disposed in landfills. The scientific community has been studied its use in other applications such as pigments, concretes, among others. This work aims to study a new added-value application for MS-the development of coloured ceramic pastes. For this purpose, the influence of the added amount (0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 wt.%), the pre-treatment (milling + sieving at 212 mu m), the maximum firing temperature (from 1043 to 1165 degrees C) and the type of furnace (laboratory/industrial) were analysed on the sample's characteristics. A dark grey stoneware product was obtained through the incorporation of 10 wt.% of MS and leaching tests conducted at pilot scale with cups confirmed its immobilization in the ceramic matrix. Furthermore, it was proved that the firing temperature can be reduced by about 100 degrees C without affecting the specimen's characteristics. This reduction leads to a considerable decrease in the energy consumption upon firing, inducing economic and environmental advantages. Therefore, this work provides a new added-value application for MS and contributes to the reduction of virgin raw materials consumption and development of more sustainable stoneware products.



subject category

Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering


Vilarinho, IS; Lopes, AL; Carneiro, J; Pinto, C; Labrincha, JA; Seabra, MP

our authors


This research was funded by Portugal 2020 through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) in the frame of the Operational Competitiveness Internationalization Programme (POCI) in the scope of the project ECOGRES + NG-POCI-01-0247-FEDER-033853 and in the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 and UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES.

Share this project:

Related Publications

We use cookies for marketing activities and to offer you a better experience. By clicking “Accept Cookies” you agree with our cookie policy. Read about how we use cookies by clicking "Privacy and Cookie Policy".