Lignosulfonate-Based Polyurethane Adhesives
authors Magina, S; Gama, N; Carvalho, L; Barros-Timmons, A; Evtuguin, DV
nationality International
journal MATERIALS
author keywords lignosulphonate; adhesive; pMDI; polyurethane; adhesion; curing kinetics; PEG; DSC; ABES
keywords KRAFT LIGNIN; CASTOR-OIL; CURING KINETICS; CRUDE GLYCEROL; FOAMS; FORMALDEHYDE; CALIBRATION; WOOD
abstract The feasibility of using lignosulfonate (LS) from acid sulphite pulping of eucalyptus wood as an unmodified polyol in the formulation of polyurethane (PU) adhesives was evaluated. Purified LS was dissolved in water to simulate its concentration in sulphite spent liquor and then reacted with 4,4 & PRIME;-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) in the presence or absence of poly(ethylene glycol) with M-w 200 (PEG(200)) as soft crosslinking segment. The ensuing LS-based PU adhesives were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis techniques. The adhesion strength of new adhesives was assessed using Automated Bonding Evaluation System (ABES) employing wood strips as a testing material. The results showed that the addition of PEG(200) contributed positively both to the homogenization of the reaction mixture and better crosslinking of the polymeric network, as well as to the interface interactions and adhesive strength. The latter was comparable to the adhesive strength recorded for a commercial white glue with shear stress values of almost 3 MPa. The optimized LS-based PU adhesive formulation was examined for the curing kinetics following the Kissinger and the Ozawa methods by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry, which revealed the curing activation energy of about 70 kJ & BULL;mol(-1).
publisher MDPI
isbn 1996-1944
year published 2021
volume 14
issue 22
digital object identifier (doi) 10.3390/ma14227072
web of science category 18
subject category Chemistry, Physical; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering; Physics, Applied; Physics, Condensed Matter
unique article identifier WOS:000724438500001
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 3.057
5 year journal impact factor 3.424
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 58.121
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