Polyamide 6/modified pine bark particle composites for additive manufacturing


Aiming the sustainability of 3D-printed objects, in this study, pine bark particles were used as filler reinforcement for polyamide 6 (PA). In order to enhance the performance of the produced composites, the biomass was chemically modified via a two-step procedure. In the first step, the OH groups present on the particles surface were reacted with ethylenediamine, which were subsequently reacted with a polyol. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), C-13 solid-state cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)CCPMAS NMR) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the chemical modification of biomass. The masterbatch was prepared from modified pine bark particles and polymeric matrix (PA) being processed into test specimens. The ensuing composites revealed a significant increase in Young's modulus and maximum stress. Thus, the introduction of 10% modified biomass increases the Young's modulus by 87% and the maximum stress by 15%. Furthermore, analyzing the glass transition temperature (Tg), melting flow index and thermogravimetric analysis results, the modified biomass ensuing composites proved to be suitable for 3D printing. This was attributed to better compatibility between chemically modified biomass and matrix and, further, easier processing.



subject category

Materials Science, Multidisciplinary


Gama, N; Ferreira, A; Barros-Timmons, A; Evtuguin, D

our authors


This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 and UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES. The NMR spectrometers are part of the National NMR Network (PTNMR) and are partially supported by Infrastructure Project No 022161 (co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE 2020, POCI and PORL and FCT through PIDDAC).

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