Chitosan Film as a Replacement for Conventional Sulphur Dioxide Treatment of White Wines: A H-1 NMR Metabolomic Study


Chitosan-genipin (Ch-Ge) films have been proposed for the replacement of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in white wines preservation to circumvent the adverse health consequences caused by SO2 intake. To assess the effects of different-sized Ch-Ge films (25 and 100 cm(2)) on wine composition compared to SO2-treated and untreated wines, nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics was applied. Relative to SO2, 100 cm(2) films induced significant changes in the levels of organic acids, sugars, amino acids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, among other compounds, while 25 cm(2) films appeared to induce only small variations. The observed metabolite variations were proposed to arise from the mitigation of fermentative processes, electrostatic interactions between acids and the positively charged films and the promotion of Maillard and Strecker reactions. Qualitative sensory analysis showed that wines maintained overall appropriate sensory characteristics, with 100 cm(2) film treated wines showing slightly higher attributes. Based on these results, the possibility of using Ch-Ge films as a replacement for SO2 treatment is discussed.



subject category

Food Science & Technology


Rodrigues, JA; Nunes, C; Coimbra, MA; Goodfellow, BJ; Gil, AM

our authors


The authors acknowledge the financial support of CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials project, UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020 and LA/P/0006/2020, and LAQV-REQUIMTE (UIDB/50006/2020), financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC (PIDDAC); FCT-WineSulFree (PTDC/AGR-ALI/101251/2008); Projects QREN-SI I&DT Co-PromocaoWineSulFree (No. 3462); Portuguese National NMR Network (PTNMR), supported by FCT funds, as the NMR spectrometer used is part of PTNMR and partially supported by Infrastructure Project N degrees 022161 (co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE 2020, POCI and PORL, and the FCT through PIDDAC); and FCTFundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, I.P., within the scope of the framework contract foreseen in sections 4, 5 and 6 of article 23 of the Decree-Law 57/2016 of 29 August, changed by Law 57/2017 of 19 July.

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