Lignocellulosic Materials Used as Biosorbents for the Capture of Nickel (II) in Aqueous Solution


Four lignocellulosic materials (walnut shell, chestnut shell, pine wood and burnt pine wood) were analyzed as biosorbents to remove nickel ions in aqueous solution. The optimal pH condition was determined. Due to this, a range of different pHs (3.0 to 7.5) was tested. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were established. To plot Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, batch adsorption tests were made with variable nickel concentrations (5 to 200 mg L-1). The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetics, batch adsorption tests were carried out with 25 mg L-1 of nickel solution and agitation time varied from 10 to 1440 min. The specific surface area of the different materials was between 3.97 and 4.85 m(2)g(-1) with the exception for wood with 1.74 m(2)g(-1). The pore size was 26.54 nm for wood and varied between 5.40 and 7.33 nm for the remaining materials. The diffractograms analysis showed that all the lignocellulosic materials presented some crystalline domains with the exception of burnt pine wood which was completely amorphous. The best pH was found to be around 5.0. At this pH the adsorption was higher for chestnut shells, walnut shells, burnt pine wood and wood, respectively. All samples fitted the Langmuir model well, with R-2 of 0.994 to 0.998. The sorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second order equation with R-2 between 0.996 and 1.00. No significative differences on the surface of the materials before and after adsorption could be observed by SEM. Finally, all materials tested were able to remove nickel ions in aqueous solution.



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Chemistry; Engineering; Materials Science; Physics


Cruz-Lopes, L; Macena, M; Esteves, B; Santos-Vieira, I

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