Major anthocyanins in elderberry effectively trap methylglyoxal and reduce cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal in HepG2 cell line


The accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the body is implicated in numerous diseases, being methylglyoxal (MGO) one of the main precursors. One of the strategies to reduce AGEs accumulation might be acting in an early stage of glycation by trapping MGO. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the potential of elderberries polyphenols to trap MGO, access the formation of MGO adducts, and evaluate the cytoprotection effect in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. The results demonstrated that monoglycosylated anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are very efficient in trapping MGO, forming mono-and di -adducts. Quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside reacted slowly, while diglycosylated anthocyanins did not react. The trapping of MGO by elderberry monoglycosylated anthocyanins significantly decreased the MGO cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells (-70 % of cell viability), while the effect in Caco-2 cells was lower (-50 %). Thus, elderberry phenolics present antiglycation potential by trapping MGO.



subject category

Chemistry; Food Science & Technology


Ferreira, SS; Domingues, MR; Barros, C; Santos, SAO; Silvestre, AJD; Silva, AM; Nunes, FM

our authors


The authors acknowledge the financial support of the European Social Funds and the Regional Operational Programme Norte 2020 (operation NORTE-08-5369-FSE-000054). The authors also acknowledge QREN, ADI, Programa Operacional do Norte and FEDER for the financial support of the Project SambucusFresh no 23109 and the financial support provided by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), to CITAB (UIDB/04033/2020) and CQ-VR (UIDB/00616/2020). The authors also acknowledge the financial support provided by CESAM (UIDB/50017/2020+UIDP/50017/2020), QOPNA (FCT UID/QUI/00062/2019), LAQV/REQUIMTE (UIDB/50006/2020) and to RNEM, Portuguese Mass Spectrometry Network (LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-402-022125) through national funds and, where applicable, co-financed by the FEDER, within the PT2020. This work was also developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, FCT Ref. UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020 financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES and, where applicable, co-financed by the FEDER within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. FCT is also acknowledged for the research contract under Scientific Employment Stimulus to S. Santos (2021.03348.CEECIND). The financial support of the project AgriFood XXI (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000041), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund through NORTE 2020 (Programa Operacional Regional do Norte 2014/2020), is also acknowledged.

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