Metabolic Evaluation of Lupin-Enriched Yogurt by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics


Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics was used to evaluate compositional changes during yogurt fermentation upon lupin enrichment compared to traditional conditions. Lupin significantly changed the sample metabolic profile and its time course dynamics, seemingly delaying microbial action. The levels of organic and amino acids were significantly altered, along with those of some sugars, nucleotides, and choline compounds. Lupin seemed to favor acetate and formate synthesis, compared to that of citrate and fumarate; a higher formate levels may suggest increased levels of Streptococcus thermophilus action, compared to Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Lupin-yogurt was poorer in hippurate, lactose (and hence lactate), galactose, glucose-1-phosphate, and galactose-1-phosphate, containing higher orotate levels (possibly related to increased uridine derivatives), among other differences. Trigonelline was confirmed as a lupin marker, possibly together with glutamate and histidine. Other metabolite trajectories remained unchanged upon lupin addition, unveiling unaffected underlying processes. These results demonstrate the usefulness of untargeted NMR metabolomics to understand/develop new foodstuffs and their production processes, highlighting the identity of a variety of bioactive metabolites with importance for human health.


Joao A. Rodrigues, Evla Ferro, Rita Araujo, Ana V. Henriques, Ana M. Gomes, Marta W. Vasconcelos, and Ana M. Gil

our authors


This work was developed within CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials project (UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020, and LA/P/0006/2020) financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC). We are also grateful to the Portuguese National NMR Network (PTNMR), supported by Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) funds as the NMR spectrometer used is part of PTNMR and partially supported by Infrastructure Project no. 022161 (cofinanced by FEDER through COMPETE 2020, POCI and PORL, and the FCT through PIDDAC). J.R. is grateful to CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials and to FCT for funding within UIDB/50016/2020 and through FCT project 2022.04286.PTDC. R.A. thanks RNRMN for her grant through the Doctoral Program in NMR applied to Chemistry, Materials and Biosciences─PTNMRPhD (PD/00065/2013). This research was also supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme through project “Realising Dynamic Value Chains for Underutilised Crops” (RADIANT) under Grant Agreement number 101000622.

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