Temperature-insensitive water content estimation in oil-water emulsion using POF sensors


This paper presents the development of an optical fiber sensor for water content estimation in oil–water emulsions. The sensor is based on the surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) principle applied in a polymer optical fiber (POF). For the sensor fabrication, a D-shape is performed on the POF to expose its core region, which has a gold thin film (nanometer thickness) for the SPR signal. The sensor is analyzed as a function of the water content in different emulsions conditions (from 0 to 55.5 M of water content), where a sensitivity of − 0.0288 nm/M was obtained. In addition, the sensor presented a sensitivity of the transmitted optical power variation as a function of the water content. These results lead to the possibility of data fusion between optical power and wavelength responses to obtain a high accuracy in the water content estimation. In this case, a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.36 M was obtained on the emulsion characterization. As an important drawback in general sensors applications, the temperature cross-sensitivity was also analyzed, where a sensitivity of 0.118 nm/°C was obtained. Such temperature sensitivity of the sensor leads to errors in emulsion characterization as a function of the temperature. To address this issue, a compensation method based on direct difference between the sensor's sensitivities is proposed. By applying the proposed compensation method, a reduction of the temperature-induced errors in the water content estimation from 6.46 %±7.81 % to only 0.32 %±1.96 %. © 2023 Elsevier Inc.


Leal-Junior A.; Lopes G.; Avellar L.; Frizera A.; Marques C.

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