Suitability evaluation of sol-gel derived Si-substituted hydroxyapatite for dental and maxillofacial applications through in vitro osteoblasts response


Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HAP) has been used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgery as a bone substitute. Objective. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of Si substitution into the hydroxyapatite matrices and evaluate the biocompatibility effects of Si-HAP material in vitro with human osteoblasts. Methods. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HAP) bioceramic materials were prepared by incorporating small amounts of silicon into the structure of hydroxyapatite [Ca-10(PO4)(6)(OH)(2), HAP] through a sol-gel method. A series of silicon substitutions ranging from 0, 1, 3 and S mol%, which are comparable to the measured silicon contents in natural bone, were performed. Results. Single-phase Si-HAP was obtained upon calcining the as-prepared powders up to 800 C since no secondary phases, such as tricalcium phosphate (TCP), tetracalcium phosphate (TeCP) or calcium oxide (CaO), were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The effects of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HAP) materials towards the responses of human osteoblast-like (HOB) cells were investigated and compared with pure hydroxyapatite. Significance. The Si-HAP indicated a significant increase in cell growth density with culture time irrespective of the amount of Si substituted in HAP. A high Si content (5 mol%) appears to promote rapid bone mineralization, since large amount of calcium phosphate minerals started to develop across the ECM by day 31 for a sample containing 5 mol% Si. On the other hand, a high Si content may result in fast dissolution of the material, owing to a decrease of HAP crystallite size, which might not be ideal for cell attachment for prolonged time periods. An optimum level of Si appears to exist at 3 mol%, which balances these effects. (C) 2008 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



subject category

Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine; Materials Science


Balamurugan, A; Rebelo, AHS; Lemos, AF; Rocha, JHG; Ventura, JMG; Ferreira, JMF

our authors


The work was supported by CICECO, University of Aveiro, Portugal. The authors would like to acknowledge the support and technical assistance of Prof. D. Laurent-Maquin, Director, INSERM ERM0203 and Centre for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, University of Reims, France.

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