Bacteriophages with potential to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium: Use of single phage suspensions and phage cocktails


The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of three previously isolated bacteriophages (or phages) individually (phSE-1, phSE-2 and phSE-5) or combined in cocktails of two or three phages (phSE-1/phSE-2, phSE-1/phSE-5, phSE-2/phSE-5 and phSE-1/phSE-2/phSE-5) to control Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) in order to evaluate their potential application during depuration. Phages were assigned to the family Siphoviridae and revealed identical restriction digest profiles, although they showed a different phage adsorption, host range, burst size, explosion time and survival in seawater. The three phages were effective against S. Typhimurium (reduction of similar to 2.0 log CFU/mL after 4 h treatment). The use of cocktails was not significantly more effective than the use of single phages. A big fraction of the remained bacteria are phage-resistant mutants (frequency of phage-resistant mutants 9.19 x 10(-5)-5.11 x 10(-4)) but phage- resistant bacterial mutants was lower for the cocktail phages than for the single phage suspensions and the phage phSE-1 presented the highest rate of resistance and phage phSE-5 the lowest one. The spectral changes of S. Typhimurium resistant and phage-sensitive cells were compared and revealed relevant differences for peaks associated to amide I (1620 cm(-1)) and amide II (1515 cm(-1)) from proteins and from carbohydrates and phosphates region (1080-1000 cm(-1)). Despite the similar efficiency of individual phages, the development of lower resistance indicates that phage cocktails might be the most promising choice to be used during the bivalve depuration to control the transmission of salmonellosis. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.






Pereira, C; Moreirinha, C; Lewicka, M; Almeida, P; Clemente, C; Cunha, A; Delgadillo, I; Romalde, JL; Nunes, ML; Almeida, A

nossos autores


This work was supported by FEDER through COMPETE-Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, and by National funding through Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), within the research projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-013934 and PROMAR 31-03-05-FEP-0028. Thanks are also to Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (project Pest-C/MAR/LA0017/2013), and to Department of Biology of University of Aveiro, and Organic Chemistry Research Unit (QOPNA) (project PEst-C/QUI/UI0062/2013; FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-037296). Financial supports to Pereira C. in form of a PhD grant (SFRH/BD/76414/2011), Moreirinha C. in form of a Postdoctoral grant (ENV/ES/001048) and Santos L. in form of a Postdoctoral grant (CESAM/PTDC/MAR- EST/2314/2012).

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