Electrochemical saturation of antimony-lead melts with oxygen: Cell design and measurement


Liquid metals have emerged as potential materials for fuel cell and battery applications due to their suit-able redox potentials, fast redox kinetics, and/or active participation in electrode reactions. In this work, we study the electrochemical oxidation behavior of antimony-lead melts by the use of a robust, yttrium-stabilized zirconia based, test setup that can avoid the necessity for the use of precious metals as current collectors. Impedance spectroscopy results obtained at 700 degrees C as a function of applied anodic polarization reveal the presence of two main contributions: an interfacial resistance, occurring at high-frequencies, re-lated to the transference of oxygen-ions between the electrolyte and the anode melt and a low-frequency contribution, related to the diffusion of oxidized species within the bulk of the melt. These electrode mechanisms were followed as a function of the extent of melt oxidation, with suggested links made to the degree of melt segregation supported by SEM and XRD analyses. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.






Mikhalev, SM; Juliao, PSB; Loureiro, FJA; Kovalevsky, AV; Shaula, AL; Frade, JR; Fagg, DP

nossos autores


This research was funded by the FCT (Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia), grants numbers PTDC/CTM-CTM/2156/2020, PTDC/QUI-ELT/3681/2020, POCI-01-0247-FEDER-039926, POCI-010145-FEDER-032241, UIDB/00481/2020 and UIDP/00481/2020; and also, by Centro Portugal Regional Operational Programme (Centro2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), grant number CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-022083. Sergey M. Mikhalev acknowledges the support of national funds (OE), through FCT Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, I.P., in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in the numbers 4, 5 and 6 of the article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19. Francisco J. A. Loureiro and Aliaksandr L. Shaula acknowledge FCT for the financial support with the reference, CEECIND/02797/2020 and CEECIND/01117/2020, respectively. Andrei V. Kovalevsky and Jorge R. Frade are grateful for the support of project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, and LA/P/0006/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES.

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