Synergetic Effect of Polyaniline and Graphene in Their Composite Supercapacitor Electrodes: Impact of Components and Parameters of Chemical Oxidative Polymerization


The current development of clean and high efficiency energy sources such as solar or wind energy sources has to be supported by the design and fabrication of energy storage systems. Electrochemical capacitors (or supercapacitors (SCs)) are promising devices for energy storage thanks to their highly efficient power management and possible small size. However, in comparison to commercial batteries, SCs do not have very high energy densities that significantly limit their applications. The value of energy density directly depends on the capacitance of full SCs and their cell voltage. Thus, an increase of SCs electrode specific capacitance together with the use of the wide potential window electrolyte can result in high performance SCs. Conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) as well as carbonaceous materials graphene (G) or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been widely studied for usage in electrodes of SCs. Although pristine PANI electrodes have shown low cycling stability and graphene sheets can have low specific capacitance due to agglomeration during their preparation without a spacer, their synergetic effect can lead to high electrochemical properties of G/PANI composites. This review points out the best results for G/PANI composite in comparison to that of pristine PANI or graphene (or RGO). Various factors, such as the ratio between graphene and PANI, oxidants, time, and the temperature of chemical oxidative polymerization, which have been determined to influence the morphology, capacitance, cycling stability, etc. of the composite electrode materials measured in three-electrode system are discussed. Consequently, we provide an in-depth summary on diverse promising approaches of significant breakthroughs in recent years and provide strategies to choose suitable electrodes based on PANI and graphene.




Chemistry; Science & Technology - Other Topics; Materials Science; Physics


Okhay, O; Tkach, A

nossos autores


This work was supported by national funds, through FCT (Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia) in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in numbers 4, 5 and 6 of article 23 of the Decree Law 57/2016, of 29 August, UIDB/00481/2020 and UIDP/00481/2020; and CENTRO-010145-FEDER-022083-Centro Portugal Regional Operational Programme (Centro2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund and developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020 & LA/P/0006/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC (PIDDAC) as well as within FCT independent researcher grant 2021.02284.CEECIND.

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