Multifunctional micro-and nanosized metalorganic frameworks assembled from bisphosphonates and lanthanides


Phase-pure and highly crystalline [Ln(Hpmd)(H2O)] materials [where Ln(3)+ Eu-3+ (1), Gd-3+ (2) and Tb-3+ (3); H(4)pmd 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene) diphosphonic acid] were prepared by using three distinct approaches: (i) conventional hydrothermal synthesis (180 degrees C, 3 days); (ii) microwave-assisted heating (50 W irradiation power, 40 degrees C, 5 seconds; nano-sized aggregates with sizes ranging between 100 and 150 nm); and (iii) ultrasound-assisted synthesis which, for highly diluted reactive mixtures (Ln(3)+ : H4pmd : H2O of 1 : 1 : 7200), permitted the preparation of isolated nano-crystals at ambient temperature with 5 minutes of ultrasonic irradiation. Compounds were structurally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (Rietveld refinement and variable-temperature studies), thermogravimetry, vibrational spectroscopy, elemental analysis and electron microscopy (SEM andEDS). The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 was investigated between ambient temperature and ca. 2 K revealing that the Ln(3)+ cations act as isolated centers. A strategy to calculate the vibrational spectra of MOF structures and based on the known embedded-clusters approach is proposed and applied to [ Ln(Hpmd)(H2O)]. This allowed the identification, along with deuteration of the materials, of the vibrational modes of the confined water molecule in the structure. Compound 1 was tested in the methanolysis of styrene oxide at 55 degrees C: it is shown that microcrystalline 1 (1-m) does not possess significant catalytic activity; on the other hand, the nano-sized counterpart (1-n) exhibits relatively high catalytic activity and excellent selectivity to 2-methoxy-2-phenylethanol (100% yield within 48 h of reaction time). Photoluminescence studies both at ambient and low temperatures showed, on the one hand, that bulk materials are composed of a single lanthanide site and, on the other hand, that the organic linker is a suitable sensitizerof Tb-3+ (absolute quantum yield of ca. 14% for 3). It is further demonstrated that the coordinated water molecule has a pivotal role in the quenching of the photoluminescence of Eu-3+ in 1: deuteration of the material results in a ca. 3.4 times improvement of the decay time (e. g., at 300 K the lifetime improves from 0.58 +/- 0.01 ms to 1.98 +/-0.01 ms).



subject category

Materials Science; Physics


Vilela, SMF; Ananias, D; Fernandes, JA; Silva, P; Gomes, AC; Silva, NJO; Rodrigues, MO; Tome, JPC; Valente, AA; Ribeiro-Claro, P; Carlos, LD; Rocha, J; Paz, FAA

our authors


We would like to thank Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal), the European Union, QREN, FEDER, COMPETE and Laboratorio Associado Centro de Investigacao em Materiais Ceramicos e Compositos, CICECO (Pest C-CTM/LA0011/2013), the research unit QOPNA (PEst-C/QUI/UI0062/2013) for their general funding scheme. We further wish to thank FCT for the R&D project PTDC/QUI-QUI/098098/2008 (FCOMP-01-0124FEDER-010785), for the doctoral research grant nos SFRH/BD/66371/2009 ( to SV) and SFRH/BD/46601/2008 ( to PS), for the post-doctoral research grant SFRH/BPD/63736/2009 (to JAF)and for the Ciencia2008 program (NJOS). Magnetic studies were performed with the support of research grants MAT2007-61621, MAT2009-13977-C03-01 and CONSOLIDER CSD2007-00010 from the Ministry of Education, Spain. We further wish to thank Dr Rosario Soares for assistance with the powder X-ray diffraction data measurements, and Prof. Veronica de Zea Bermudez (UTAD) for granting access to the TGA instrument.

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