Unveiling in Vivo Subcutaneous Thermal Dynamics by Infrared Luminescent Nanothermometers


The recent development of core/shell engineering of rare earth doped luminescent nanoparticles has ushered a new era in fluorescence thermal biosensing, allowing for the performance of minimally invasive experiments, not only in living cells but also in more challenging small animal models. Here, the potential use of active-core/active-shell Nd3+ - and Yb3+-doped nanoparticles as subcutaneous thermal probes has been evaluated. These temperature nanoprobes operate in the infrared transparency window of biological tissues, enabling deep temperature sensing into animal bodies thanks to the temperature dependence of their emission spectra that leads to a ratiometric temperature readout. The ability of active-core/active-shell Nd3+- and Yb3+-doped nanoparticles for unveiling fundamental tissue properties in in vivo conditions was demonstrated by subcutaneous thermal relaxation monitoring through the injected core/shell nanoparticles. The reported results evidence the potential of infrared luminescence nanothermometry as a diagnosis tool at the small animal level.



subject category

Chemistry; Science & Technology - Other Topics; Materials Science; Physics


Ximendes, EC; Santos, WQ; Rocha, U; Kagola, UK; Sanz-Rodriguez, F; Fernandez, N; Gouveia-Neto, AD; Bravo, D; Domingo, AM; del Rosal, B; Brites, CDS; Carlos, LD; Jaque, D; Jacinto, C

our authors


This work was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia (MAT2013-47395-C4-1-R), by EU Framework Programme (COST-CM1403 action) by Brazilian Agencies: FINEP (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos) through the grants INFRAPESQ-11 and INFRAPESQ-12; CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico) Grants INCT NANO(BIO)SIMES and Project Universal nr. 483238/2013-9; CAPES (Coordenadoria de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior) by means of the Project PVE nr. A077/2013. E.C.X. is supported by a PhD scholarship from CNPq and currently by the PVE A077/2013 project by means of a PhD sandwich program developed at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain. D.J. is the PVE (Pesquisador Visitante Especial) of the Project A077/2013. K.U.K. is a postdoctoral fellow of this Project. W.QS. is a postdoctoral fellow of the PNPD/CAPES program. U.R. is supported by a Post Doctoral Fellowship grant PDE/CAPES at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid-Spain through the Project No. 2108-14-3. B.d.R. aknowledges support from Universidad Autonoma de Madrid through an FPI grant. This work was developed in the scope of the project CICECO- Aveiro Institute of Materials (ref. FCT UID/CTM/50011/2013), financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when applicable cofinanced by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. C.D.S.B. (SFRH/BPD/89003/2012) thanks Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal) for the postdoctoral grant.

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