Effects of single and combined exposures of gold (nano versus ionic form) and gemfibrozil in a liver organ culture of Sparus aurata


In vitro methods have gained rising importance in ecotoxicology due to ethical concerns. The aim of this study was to assess the single and combined in vitro effects of gold, as nanoparticle (AuNPs) and ionic (Au+) form, and the pharmaceutical gemfibrozil (GEM). Sparus aurata liver organ culture was exposed to gold (4 to 7200 mu g.L-1), GEM (1.5 to 15,000 mu g.L-1) and combination 80 mu g.L-1 gold +150 mu g.L-1 GEM for 24 h. Endpoints related with antioxidant status, peroxidative/genetic damage were assessed. AuNPs caused more effects than Au+, increasing catalase and glutathione reductase activities and damaging DNA and cellular membranes. Effects were depen-dent on AuNPs size, coating and concentration. GEM damaged DNA at an environmentally relevant concentration, 1.5 mu g.L-1. Overall, the effects of the combined exposures were higher than the predicted, based on single exposures. This study showed that liver culture can be a useful model to study contaminants effects.



subject category

Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Marine & Freshwater Biology


Barreto, A; Carvalho, A; Silva, D; Pinto, E; Almeida, A; Paiga, P; Correira-Sa, L; Delerue-Matos, C; Trindade, T; Soares, AMVM; Hylland, K; Loureiro, S; Oliveira, M



Thanks are due to FCT/MCTES for the financial support to CESAM (UIDP/50017/2020 + UIDB/50017/2020), through national funds. This research was supported through the COMPETE -Operational Competitiveness Program and national funds through FCT, under the project NANOAu -Effects of Gold Nanoparticles to Aquatic Organisms (FCT PTDC/MAR-EST/3399/2012) (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-029435), through FCT/MCTES through national funds (PIDDAC), the cofounding by FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020. A. Barreto has a doctoral fellowship from FCT (SFRH/BD/97624/2013). M. Oliveira has financial support of the program Investigator FCT, co-funded by the Human Potential Operational Programme and European Social Fund (IF/00335(2015)).

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