Alkaline activation of inert industrial wastes and clay by-products, process for their implementation and use in construction


The present invention relates to articles for the building industry based on inert industrial waste, natural clays or clay by-products, obtained by alkaline activation method. In optimal conditions, bodies with adequate mechanical strength (30 MPa) and increased resistance to salt or acid attack are obtained. These products present a performance similar to that of common cement bodies with the advantage of using material from industrial waste and clay products or by-products. Optimization of processing conditions in terms of solids composition, activator/solids ratio and cure conditions, promotes an effective mechanical and structural development. This solution also presents environmental added value, translated in the recycling of wastes as raw materials.

Innovative aspects & main advantages

The present invention relates to the production of building artifacts by using the alkaline activation of inert industrial wastes, mixed with natural clays or clay-based by-products. These products show properties similar to those presented by common cement-based bodies, and is a way to recycle distinct industrial wastes and by-products. Among the used wastes, we used dust or fines collected from ceramics production, namely from lightweight aggregates manufacturing, sludge and fines from cutting and polishing of natural stones, rejects of glass cullet, aluminium anodizing sludge and foundry sand. In optimal conditions, produced bodies show compressive strength over 30 MPa and high resistance to salts or acids attack. Increasing thermal insulation might be also achieved by using lightweight and porous components in the mix.


The industrial applicability is here focused in the manufacturing of building materials (e.g. concrete artifacts). Wastes producers might also be a target, as an alternative to landfilling practices.


Batista, João; Ferreira, Victor; Pinto, Amândio; Tavares, Pedro

Our Inventors


Universidade de Aveiro
Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
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